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How to Get a Divorce Online without an attorney via Market Business News

The family life of a man and a woman has its ups and downs, and sometimes, no matter how hard the spouses try, things just don’t work out, and the only option left is filing for divorce. It can be a scary time with lots of questions. You may be worried about the length of…

How to Get a Divorce Online in New Jersey — Market Business News

A Brief Review of Reinsurance Trends in 2020 — Schiffer on Re-Insurance

Photo by Tuesday Temptation on Pexels.com Annually for several decades, with the first edition of each year’s reinsurance newsletter published by my various prior firms, we would present a brief review of reinsurance case law trends from the prior year. Because I am no longer with a firm, I now use this Blog to post […]

A Brief Review of Reinsurance Trends in 2020 — Schiffer on Re-Insurance

Vaccination as a Condition of Employment: Evaluating Legal Risks of Mandatory Vaccine Policies During the Pandemic — Strategic HR Solutions

With coronavirus vaccines receiving their emergency use authorizations from the FDA and being rapidly rolled out, employers will need to evaluate a mandatory vaccination policy that balances employee rights with novel business realities and pre-existing legal frameworks lacking clear guidance in the face of COVID-19.

Under existing federal law and regulations, employers may be able to institute mandatory vaccination policies to protect health and safety in the workplace. Although a mandatory vaccine policy is not completely free from legal risk, courts more recently have upheld vaccination requirements when an employer shows that the need for vaccine-acquired immunity is job-related, consistent with business necessity, and not more intrusive than necessary. Other constitutional challenges to the vaccine may occur, but such challenges could be influenced significantly by government and public sentiment likely to affect an outcome with the courts.

Current CDC guidance has identified frontline healthcare workers, workers in essential industries, and other high-risk individuals based on individual health factors as groups that will likely receive the earliest allocations of COVID-19 vaccines if demand outpaces supply, as expected. Employers with workers in the first two categories will likely have the strongest case for job-relatedness and business necessity when instituting a mandatory vaccination policy. But employers in other sectors may also be able to make a compelling case for mandatory vaccinations.

Proactive Consideration of Medical and Religious Accommodations

All employers implementing mandatory vaccine policies should consider (and train staff for) employees’ potential requests for medical or religious accommodations. For employers covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), mandatory medical “examinations” (including a requirement that employees receive vaccines) may require reasonable accommodations for employees with certain disabilities, unless the employer can show that the employee poses a “direct threat” (i.e., a significant risk of substantial harm that cannot be reduced or eliminated by reasonable accommodation) to their own health or to others in the workplace. Similarly, employers covered by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 may need to accommodate, absent direct threat, employees with religious objections to vaccination generally or to the specific production method of the then-available COVID-19 vaccine.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) determined in March 2020 that COVID-19’s “direct threat” to workers’ health justified employers’ medical examinations of employees, including more in-depth health-related questions, medical screening before allowing employees to report to work, and other similar conduct. This same finding of the direct threat posed by COVID-19 in the workplace may justify a mandatory vaccination policy for most employees as well.

When faced with employees requesting medical or religious accommodations (supported by appropriate documentation), employers will need to determine whether any potential accommodation either (a) would not sufficiently reduce or eliminate the direct threat posed by the pandemic or (b) would impose an undue hardship on the employer.

But these standards of accommodation, threat, and hardship will vary both under federal law and in the relevant factual scenarios of each employer. Under the ADA, for instance, undue hardship requires an employer to show that a reasonable accommodation for a medically-objecting employee would cause significant difficulty or expense after consideration of several factors. Under Title VII, undue hardship for religious accommodations need only meet a “de minimis test,” meaning that an employer would show that the accommodation imposed a more than minimal cost to demonstrate undue hardship in accommodating an employee objecting to vaccination on religious grounds. Because of these variations, federal law could require an employer to accommodate a disabled employee but not an employee demanding an accommodation for religious observance.

Further complicating these matters are the patchwork of state and local regulations of the workplace. For instance, in California, the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) provides greater protection for an employee making a request for a religious accommodation than under Title VII. Rather than the federal “de minimis” test for undue hardship of religious accommodations, California employers will need to evaluate the hardship presented by accommodations under a significant difficulty or expense factor-test similar to the federal ADA standard.

Practical Considerations

While employers await guidance on COVID-19 vaccination from applicable state and federal authorities, there are some practical issues employers should consider now regarding an approach to vaccination, including:

  • While mandating vaccination presents challenges related to medical and religious accommodations, the absence of a mandatory policy is not without cost. Without adopting a vaccination program, employers may face claims under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), or tort or workers’ compensation claims for failing to meet the obligation to provide a safe and healthy work environment.
  • Employers should encourage and incentivize workers to get vaccinated. Measures to promote employee vaccination could include: (1) outreach to company group health insurers to inquire whether the vaccine is covered by the group policy, (2) stipends or reimbursements for vaccination, (3) guidance on where to get vaccines (when vaccines become more widely available), (4) allowing employees to use PTO and other applicable leave to provide time off necessary to get vaccinated, and (5) demonstrations of personal commitment by company executives (e.g. sharing educational materials or testimonials concerning vaccination). Such incentives are particularly germane for those employers who decide that a mandatory vaccination policy may not fit with business necessity or company culture.
  • Create a thoughtful vaccination policy and enforce this policy as consistently and uniformly as possible. While employers should work within existing frameworks to consider religious and medical accommodations on a case-by-case basis, selective enforcement of a vaccination policy could lead to disparate treatment discrimination claims.
  • Stay mindful of state and local laws, regulations, and orders concerning vaccinations and reopening plans. Employers with locations across multiple jurisdictions will have to tailor policies to account for variations among state and local authorities.
  • Employers in a unionized setting will need to consider how a vaccination policy will fit within applicable collective bargaining agreements or trigger bargaining obligations.

In the vacuum of clear and controlling federal, state, and local guidance and with many questions unanswered as to the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for those who receive doses, employers considering vaccine mandates as part of their return-to-work plans or as an enhancement to workplace health and safety as the vaccines become increasingly available should consult with our team of HR professionals to evaluate appropriate policies and accommodations issues.

With coronavirus vaccines receiving their emergency use authorizations from the FDA and being rapidly rolled out, employers will need to evaluate a mandatory vaccination policy that balances employee rights with novel business realities and pre-existing legal frameworks lacking clear guidance in the face of COVID-19. Under existing federal law and regulations, employers may be able […]

Vaccination as a Condition of Employment: Evaluating Legal Risks of Mandatory Vaccine Policies During the Pandemic — Strategic HR Solutions

Who defines the concept of Morality?

by Jeffrey W. Hamilton

Text: Romans 2:12-16

I.         Where does the concept of right and wrong come from?

            A.        Why are some things “right” and other things “wrong?”            B.        Paul points out that the Gentiles were able by nature to know right from wrong – Romans 2:14-15

II.        Where morality doesn’t come from

            A.        Some people want to deny that there is an absolute right or wrong.                        1.         What is moral or immoral depends on the situation. In particular, if the end results appears to be good, then we are to conclude that the cause was good.

                        2.         Paul proved that this reasoning is false – Romans 5:20-6:2

                                    a.         Paul is saying it doesn’t make senses, it is a contradiction

                                    b.         Such reasoning is justly condemned – Romans 3:8

            B.        Some people argue that morality comes from within each individual                        1.         But that doesn’t work. There are things some people will do that I cannot accept                         2.         Supposedly this is acceptable and we are told that we must make allowances for the differing standards of people                         3.         Yet there are a lot of people out there who don’t care about their fellow man. By this “rule” I would be immoral for saying that Osama Bin Laden or Hitler’s actions were wrong.                                     a.         But wait a minute, I thought everyone determined for themselves what was right or wrong.                         4.         So we learn that it doesn’t happen in reality, people have standards at some level they want to impose on others.                         5.         God tells us that man doesn’t have the ability to determine right and wrong – Jeremiah 10:23

            C.        Morality doesn’t come from law                        1.         Returning to Paul’s point in Romans 2:14-15, the Gentiles were able to do right and wrong without having the law.

                        2.         Therefore law doesn’t determine what is right or wrong.

                        3.         Law defines right and wrong – Romans 7:7-13                                    a.         The law does not make things right or wrong, it simply states what exists.

                                    b.         We have in science a law of gravity.                                                (1)       Now gravity existed long before someone came up with the law of gravity.                                                 (2)       The law of gravity defines how gravity operates, but it did not create gravity.                                     c.         Murder is wrong. The law only explained that murder is a sin. The law did not make murder into a sin.

                                    d.         This is why God’s law is called truth – Psalm 119:142                                                (1)       Unlike man’s laws which are sometimes arbitrary and inaccurate, God’s law accurately define what exists.

III.       Where morality does come from

            A.        One fundamental point, among many, about God is that He is love – I John 4:8

                        1.         God is the embodiment of love

            B.        We have love because God first loved us – I John 4:17-21

                        1.         When we love, we are imitating God (vs. 17)

                        2.         Love did not start with us – I John 4:10

            C.        Jesus explained that the core to all law is love – Matthew 22:36-40

            D.        Laws come from God – II Timothy 3:16-17

                        1.         They never came from man – II Peter 1:19-21

                        2.         Laws are for our good – Deuteronomy 6:24

                                    a.         In a prophecy of the new law – Jeremiah 32:39

                                    b.         So that we might have life – Romans 6:21-22                        3.         In other words, God in His love for us gave us Laws to explain what is right and wrong – I John 5:2-3                         4.         We in turn show our love for God by keeping his commandments – John 14:15

            E.        When we follow God’s laws, we become like Him – I Peter 1:22

            F.        And God gives us laws to protect us from harm – Proverbs 6:23-24

                        1.         And that protection from harm is evidence of love

IV.      We need law because on our own we do not accurately distinguish good from evil            A.        It is by learning God’s law and putting it into practice that we are able to make the distinction – Hebrews 5:13-14

            B.        Though morality doesn’t come from law, law does teach us what is moral.

            C.        That was the advantage the Jews had over the Greeks – Romans 3:1-3                        1.         Even though the Jews were faithless in their keeping of the law, they did have the advantage of a better knowledge of what was right and wrong.

            D.        People often don’t recognize evil – Ecclesiastes 5:1; Psalm 82:4-5            E.        When God told Adam and Eve not to eat of one tree, He was telling them what already existed – Genesis 2:16-17

                        1.         Danger existed. There was something there that had bad consequences.                        2.         Adam and Eve were made aware by a commandment that the danger existed.

                        3.         Yet, they broke the commandment and thereby sinned – Romans 5:12            F.        God has always warned us of the dangers. There has always been laws – Romans 5:12-14

                        1.         Even before Moses came down from Mt. Sinai, people had laws.                        2.         How do I know? Because people were sinning before Moses lived – Genesis 4:7                         3.         Sin doesn’t exist without the presence of law because sin is defined to be the breaking of law – I John 3:4

V.        God has shown us what is good – Micah 6:6-8

            A.        Isn’t the prudent thing to listen? – Proverbs 4:1-27

Variables To Consider When Searching For The Right Personal Injury Lawyer via Lau

Heavy injuries - seek a specialized lawyer - personal injury 9449

Getting injured as a result of someone else’s recklessness can inconvenience you in so many ways. You may also be forced to spend a lot on treatment. The good thing is you can file a suit against any person who causes such type of harm to you. Commonly referred to as a personal injury case, you can easily get compensated for the medical expenses if you argue your case right. The right person to look for in such a scenario is a personal injury attorney. MG Law is a law firm with the best Atlanta injury attorneys to help you out in such a case. There is a myriad of things you have to know about a personal injury case before filing this type of suit. We will have a look at them in this article.  

Examples of Personal Injury Cases

Personal injury law includes a wide range of case types, from facilities liability to defective products. Popular personal injury suits are listed below:

Injuries

  • Brain injuries
  • Burn injuries
  • Whiplash
  • Spinal injuries/paralysis
  • Dog bite injuries
  • War wounds
  • Nursing home injuries
  • Medical negligence
  • Wrongful death
  • Dangerous products and drugs

Accident

  • Car crashes
  • Motorcycle accidents
  • Bus accidents
  • Truck accidents
  • Pedestrian accidents
  • Bicycle crashes
  • Slip and fall accidents

How to Know the Worth of Your Personal Injuries

Injury Case

The settlement you receive after a personal injury lawsuit can range from several hundred to million-dollar compensation. It all depends on the seriousness of your injuries, the skill level of your legal representation, and a variety of other circumstances. It is helpful to understand the types of damages available in a personal injury claim to get a better idea of ​​how much your claim may be worth.

Compensatory Damages

Compensatory damages are the most common types of damages in personal injury claims. This type compensates the claimant for losses suffered as a result of the injury. These include economic and non-economic damages.

Economic Damages

They include:

  • Medical bills: consisting of past and future bills for continuing care, rehabilitation and physical therapy, or end-of-life care and funeral expenses in wrongful death cases.
  • Lost wages: this includes the time you were unable to fend for yourself, job loss directly related to the accident/injury, reduced earning capacity, and partial or total disability resulting in loss of your livelihood.
  • Loss of property: including your car and other personal items. You can receive compensation to repair your property, replace it, or refund its fair market value.

Non-Economic Damages

They include, but are not limited to:

  • Pain and suffering: Understandably, coming up with a monetary value of suffering or pain can be hard. Pain and suffering mean the physical and psychological or discomfort you will go through during or after a crash.
  • Emotional distress: This includes fear and anxiety experienced during the accident or injury, but also afterward. Many people involved in an accident may have problems with post-traumatic stress disorder, panic attacks, and depression.
  • Lack of enjoyment: This includes the inability to participate in daily activities and hobbies due to the injury.
  • Loss of consortium: referring to the damaging effects of the injury on the spouse or children of the victim. This includes the loss of parenthood and companionship.

Do I need a personal injury attorney?

When injured, your priority should always be to get the comprehensive medical care you need. Once you have done this, it is recommended that you contact a trusted personal injury attorney to set up a consultation.

First deliberations (usually provided at no fee to you) allow you to have your suit examined by a qualified legal expert. They can let you know whether your claim is viable, help you calculate the number of damages you are owed, and develop a winning case strategy.

One of the things you should consider when looking for a personal injury attorney is experience. Look for someone with the required expertise for the job. An attorney who has represented several clients is the best. You should also consider the number of cases won. The other thing to look into carefully is their legal fees. Do not forget to consider their reputation. With the right attorney, you are guaranteed compensation.


Interesting Related Article: “Why Should You Hire A Personal Injury Attorney?

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Below are some actions you can take to gather a list of legal representatives in your location whom you might pay for. If you […]

Variables To Consider When Searching For The Right Personal Injury Lawyer — The Journaling of Lau 362

Globally Recognized Human Rights via Advocatetanmoy Law Library

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year (A) 1993 (B) 1994 (C) 1995 (D) 1996 Answer: (A)

Solved Objective Question(MCQs)- Human Rights – 1st Set — Advocatetanmoy Law Library

Talk About Leaving Things To The Last Minute via Funny & True Stories @ NotAlwaysRight.com

Client: “If I get documents to you by the end of the day, can you still file them with the court today?”

via Talk About Leaving Things To The Last Minute — Funny & True Stories | NotAlwaysRight.com

3. Distinctiveness in Trademark Law via Jarasek Law, LLC

 

There are four different categories of terms with respect to trademark protection.

Arrayed in ascending order which roughly reflects their eligibility to trademark status and the degree of protection accorded, these classes are (1) generic, (2) descriptive, (3) suggestive, and (4) arbitrary or fanciful.

The lines of demarcation, however, are not always bright.

Abercrombie & Fitch Co. v. Hunting World, Inc., 537 F.2d 4 (2d Cir. 1976).

  • Takeaways
    • Creating a distinctive mark is important for the following reasons:
      • Distinctiveness is a requirement of a trademark law;
      • If your mark is not distinctive, it will not register; and
      • Having a distinctive mark will likely keep the trademark registration process and enforcement costs down
    • Understanding the Distinctiveness Categories
      • Generic (not protected)
      • Descriptive
      • Suggestive
      • Arbitrary
      • Fanciful (most protected)
    • Descriptive marks v. Suggestive marks
      • Imagination Test
      • Competitors’ Needs Test

The choice of a lawyer is an important decision and should not be based solely on advertisements. This website is for informational purposes only and does not provide legal advice. Please do not act or refrain from acting based on anything you read on this site. Using this site or communicating with Jarasek Law, LLC through this site does not form an attorney-client relationship. This site is legal advertising. Please review the full disclaimer for more information.

 

There are four different categories of terms with respect to trademark protection. Arrayed in ascending order which roughly reflects their eligibility to trademark status and the degree of protection accorded, these classes are (1) generic, (2) descriptive, (3) suggestive, and (4) arbitrary or fanciful. The lines of demarcation, however, are not always bright. Abercrombie & […]

via 3. Distinctiveness in Trademark Law — Jarasek Law, LLC

The Breakdown of a Contract via Liveindias

The contract contains the details agreed upon by the parties involved in a project or  agreement. The contract details should be clear and complete. Both parties should be able to understand what is written in the contract. If you wish to make a contract or you are about to sign a contract, it is best that you know what a contact must have.

A basic contract usually has five elements:

The work to be done for the project should be clearly stated in the contract. The work the contractor would do and will not do should be indicated in the contract. The work to be accomplished should be clear to both parties to prevent any misunderstanding.

The time limit of the project is also a very important aspect. In construction projects where the time is of essence, the contractor should be able to meet with the deadlines. In some contracts, a penalty is usually included in the clause if the contractor will not be able to meet the deadline and a bonus is also given if the project is ready before the deadline.

The payment clause of the issue tackles the monetary issue in the contract. Some contracts are paid in a fixed price while others are paid by computing the cost of materials and the time spent on the project. The manner on how the payment is to be done (either monthly or weekly or so forth) and when the payments should be made are also specified on the contract. The arrangement of the payments should be agreed by both parties to satisfy the quality of the work done.

The contract should also address any confidentiality issues and reporting of the progress of the project. The contract should state all the information that the contractor should not divulge in any circumstances. The information should also be kept just between the contractor and the buyer. Information should not be divulged for the buyer’s benefit unless you discover it to be illegal and proper authority should be contacted. The progress on the project can also be reported to the buyer only unless stated otherwise in the contract.

Warranty and subcontractors on any project made is also indicated in the contract. Warranty length can be established at the time of close.  This is to ensure that any services done will be of high quality and done in a timely manner. If a subcontractor will be needed for the project, the buyer should know of it and have a list of the subcontractors. The buyer must first agree on the list of subcontractors before signing the contract.

via What Should Your Contracts Have? — liveindias

This is the Best time to start a Legal Financing Company via PNN

Investors and consumers are already taking notice of the benefits of legal financing, and as the number of civil cases continues to rise, so too will demand for lawsuit loans.

If you haven’t heard about legal financing or lawsuit loans before, that may change. The practice of legal financing dates back to the early 1990s, but it didn’t take off in the United States until Credit Suisse Securities launched a litigation lending program in 2006 that later became its own company in 2012.

Legal financing, often referred to as a lawsuit loan, is a cash advance that a lender gives to someone in exchange for a portion of their potential settlement or judgment in a lawsuit. In short, legal finance lenders bet on lawsuits that they think will win.

While lawsuit loans are a risky investment, the industry is full of successful startups with millions of dollars in available funding. Since legal financing grew nearly 400% between 2013 and 2017, this may be the perfect time to consider the potential of starting a legal financing company.

How Lawsuit Loans Work.

Lawsuit loans are an immediate cash payment to plaintiffs in exchange for a portion of their compensation when they settle or win their case. Basically, legal financing lenders purchase a portion of the settlement. In addition, lenders charge interest on top of the amount of money borrowed due to the high risk of their investment.

However, unlike traditional loans, lawsuit loans don’t require a credit check, income verification, or employment history. Lenders only approve funding based on the strength of the case, so if a plaintiff has a strong case that is 6-12 months away from a settlement, they are more likely to receive a loan, as described on pre settlement loan websites such as Nova Legal Funding and others.

In addition, lawsuit loans are non-recourse, so the plaintiff doesn’t have to pay back the money they borrowed if they lose the case. The lender accepts the entirety of that risk.

Factors Contributing to the Growth of the Legal Financing Industry.

There are several reasons why legal financing continues to grow throughout the United States. A combination of lax regulations and an increase in personal injury cases contributes significantly to the industry’s growth and shows no signs of slowing down.

According to the New Yorker, the legal financing industry had more than $3 billion in assets in 2016. Another report by Burford Capital found that the number of lawyers in the United States who helped a client apply for a lawsuit loan quadrupled between 2013 and 2015, from 7% to 28%. While competition is hot, it’s clear that legal financing is increasing in demand.

Lack of Regulation.

Since legal financing is considered an investment or payment, it does not have the same federal and state regulations as traditional lending. In fact, most states don’t have any rules regarding legal funding since financing is non-recourse. This makes it easy for entrepreneurs to start legal financing businesses and obtain investors.

However, a few states have new regulations for lawsuit loans in place. For example, the state of Colorado settled a lawsuit in 2015 with a lender after the state’s Supreme Court determined that legal financing was subject to Colorado’s Uniform Consumer Credit Code and that the amount of interest charged is predatory under Colorado lending laws.

More People are Filing Personal Injury Lawsuits.

While the number of civil cases filed in district courts continues to increase, personal injury claims have grown the most.

According to an annual report from US Courts, the total number of personal injury lawsuits filed in a district court almost doubled between 1990 and 2019. In addition, the number of personal injury claims filed between 2018 and 2019 alone increased by more than 20%. In 2019, personal injury claims made up nearly one-third of all civil cases in the US. Most personal injury cases involved motor vehicle accidents, medical malpractice, defective pharmaceuticals, and marine injuries.

Lawsuit Loans Have a High Rate of Return if Successful.

Most lenders have interest rates ranging from 3-4% monthly, or 36-60% annually. Since lawsuits often take months or years to settle or receive a judgment, the rate of return for lenders is high. For example, if a lender allows a plaintiff to borrow $10,000 at an interest rate of 36% compounded monthly and the case settles in 6 months, the lender receives $10,000 plus an additional $1,800 in interest.

Lenders are Forming Trade Groups to Establish Ethical Guidelines.

Since there are so many legal financing companies operating and few federal regulations, some of the industry’s leading lenders decided to start a trade group called the American Legal Finance Association, or ALFA. With more than 30 members, ALFA provides 90% of all legal financing in the United States.

Members of the organization have their own code of conduct with protections in place for consumers, including restrictions on overfunding, false advertising, and referral commissions. ALFA also supports new consumer protection regulations for the industry and highlights third-party research about legal financing.

Personal Injury Lawsuits Have a High Value.

Since legal financing lenders need the strongest cases possible to make the risk worth their time, they typically fund personal injury cases where negligence plays a significant role.

According to a survey conducted by Nolo, around 70% of personal injury plaintiffs receive a settlement or judgment. Out of all of the plaintiffs surveyed, half received a settlement or judgment worth $10,001 to more than $75,000. Most importantly, plaintiffs who retained a lawyer were more likely to win their case and received more than $75,000 on average. Plaintiffs without a lawyer received almost 80% less compensation as well.

This is the reason why most legal financing lenders require applicants to have a lawyer representing their case. Not only does it significantly reduce the risk of lending, but it also means a potentially higher return.

This is the Best Time to Consider a Legal Financing Startup.

Based on the increased popularity of lawsuit loans, lack of regulations, and high return on lawsuit investments, this is the best time to start a legal financing company. Investors and consumers are already taking notice of the benefits of legal financing, and as the number of civil cases continues to rise, so too will demand for lawsuit loans.

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[ad_1] If you haven’t heard about legal financing or lawsuit loans before, that may change. The practice of legal financing dates back to the early 1990s, but it didn’t take off in the United States until Credit Suiss Securities launched a litigation lending program in 2006 that later became its own company in 2012. Legal […]

via The New Startup: Legal Financing & Lawsuit Loans – Young Upstarts — PNN – Paper News Network