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Key Points about Requiring Proof of Covid-19 Vaccination? via Strategic HR Solutions

In connection with the recent surge in COVID-19 cases caused by the Delta variant, many businesses have begun to require that employees—and sometimes contractors, volunteers and patrons—provide proof of vaccination. This may come in the form of requests for voluntary disclosure, or in connection with employer vaccine policies, or pursuant to newly issued mandates from public health authorities.

Mandatory Disclosures: For example, on Aug. 12, 2021, the San Francisco California Department of Public Health issued sweeping revisions to its Order of the Health Officer No. C19-07y (“SF Order”), mandating that certain businesses, including restaurants and gyms, require staff and patrons to provide proof of full vaccination against COVID-19 (subject to limited exceptions). Such employers are required, by Oct. 13, 2021, to ensure that all staff who routinely work onsite provide proof of full vaccination. Similarly, with its “Key to NYC,” New York City has similarly mandated that certain businesses, including restaurants, gyms and other indoor entertainment and recreational businesses not permit patrons or employees to enter the premises without providing proof of at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine; inspections and enforcement will begin Sept. 3, 2021.

As another example, on Aug. 2, 2021, the City and County of Denver issued a public health order (“Denver Order”) requiring that private-sector businesses in certain “high-risk” settings, including but not limited to schools, childcare centers and some health care settings, ensure that all “personnel”—defined to include contractors and volunteers—are fully vaccinated by Sept. 30, 2021. The Denver Order does not specify how “personnel” are to prove vaccination status and does not address any exemptions to the vaccine requirement, however both issues are further addressed in the Vaccination Requirement FAQs. Entities subject to the Denver Order are also required to “maintain corresponding records” of vaccination verification, which the entity must make available to the public health authority upon request.

Voluntary Disclosures: Cal/OSHA’s Emergency Temporary Standards (“ETS”) define “fully vaccinated” to mean “the employer has documented that the person received, at least 14 days prior, either the second dose in a two-dose COVID-19 vaccine series or a single-dose COVID-19 vaccine.” The ETS prescribe varying protocols, exclusion requirements and other standards for fully vaccinated versus non-fully vaccinated employees. And some local public health agencies have conducted on-site visits to ensure that employers have such documentation in place and are applying appropriate protocol levels for fully vaccinated and non-fully vaccinated employees. Many employers are therefore asking employees to voluntarily provide proof of vaccination, with the alternative of being treated as unvaccinated and being subjected to more stringent protocols.

Employer Vaccine Mandates: Some employers already have issued vaccine mandates; many others have been waiting until the FDA issued full approval of one or more COVID-19 vaccines to issue such mandates, which it did with respect to the Pfizer vaccine on Aug. 23. Such policies will necessitate that employees provide evidence of vaccination status or their eligibility for a legally required exemption (i.e., due to a medical condition, disability or sincerely-held religious belief).

Civil Rights Laws: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and many state agencies have indicated that an employer merely asking about vaccination status does not, in and of itself, implicate federal such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act or state laws of similar effect. Those come into play only when, for instance, an employer asks why someone is not vaccinated. Once obtained, though, the vaccination status data is considered confidential medical information and must be handled accordingly.

HIPAA Implications: The good news for businesses requiring proof of vaccination from employees or patrons is that inquiries into vaccination status usually do not implicate the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) because it does not broadly cover medical information in and of itself. Rather, HIPAA applies only to medical information held by “covered entities”—defined as certain health care providers, health insurance plans and health care clearing houses—and “business associates” that perform services for or on behalf of a covered entity. If a business does not meet the definitions of a “covered entity” or “business associate,” it is not subject to HIPAA.

Privacy Laws: HIPAA aside, businesses seeking to verify vaccination status of employees or patrons—whether voluntarily or pursuant to a government mandate—should consider whether they need to comply with applicable state or local privacy laws in doing so. As to privacy of employee information, for example, the California Confidentiality of Medical Information Act (“CMIA”) bars employers from using or disclosing medical information about employees without having first obtained a signed authorization from the employee. While there are limited exceptions to this law, arguably none of those exceptions directly permit an employer to collect and use vaccination status information for the purposes typically contemplated by, for example, the public health authority mandates. Likewise, employers seeking to use such information to, for instance, designate protocol levels applicable to particular employees (e.g., by differentiated ID cards) may run afoul of privacy laws if proper authorization is not obtained; such differentiation can essentially be considered a “proxy” for the confidential medical information regarding vaccination status. Notably, the CMIA provides for a private right of action, and aggrieved employees may sue for damages, as well as statutorily limited punitive damages and attorneys’ fees. This is a tricky situation that requires careful balancing of competing interests.

As to privacy of patron information, again, existing state or local privacy laws may apply. Whether and to what extent states impose privacy requirements with regard to patron medical information varies widely state to state. For example, Colorado’s current data privacy law—which will remain the governing law until the recently enacted Colorado Privacy Act takes effect in 2023—requires in certain circumstances that in the event “medical information” about Colorado residents is exposed as part of a security breach of computerized data, the affected persons be notified, as well as potentially the Colorado Attorney General. That is, a Colorado business which retains electronic copies of patron vaccine cards may be required to issue notifications to affected patrons if that business suffers a data breach.

On the other hand, businesses operating in states which have attempted to ban any inquiries into patron vaccine status, such as Florida, should stay up to date on the legal status of such bans and remain mindful of them.

Storage and Retention of Vaccination Data: Employers collecting vaccination information should also consider whether state privacy laws impose requirements on the storage and retention of medical information of employees. Indeed, the SF Order explicitly requires that employers maintain records of staff vaccination or exemption status and provide these records to public health authorities upon request, consistent with applicable privacy laws. The CMIA requires that employers establish appropriate procedures to ensure the confidentiality of employee medical information and to protect that information from unauthorized use and disclosure. The Denver Order similarly requires affected employers to maintain records of personnel vaccination, which employers must make available to the public health authority upon request. While current Colorado law does not impose storage or retention requirements specific to employee medical information, to the extent the vaccination status information is combined with one or more elements of “personal identifying information”—which is defined by Colorado statute to include individual identification numbers such as a social security number or employer identification number—Colorado laws governing storage and retention of personal identifying information may apply.

Takeaways: Verification of vaccination status, coupled with existing state privacy laws, may create a difficult landscape for employers. Businesses must walk a tightrope in obtaining enough employee or patron information to, for instance, satisfy public health agency mandates, while limiting the information obtained and the use of such information to minimize potential liability. Businesses should also, to the extent possible, consider notifying employees and patrons of the reasons any information is retained and with whom it may be shared, as well as limiting internal access to that information.

Businesses should work closely with their HR and legal team in developing their strategy for complying with privacy and other applicable laws in implementing vaccination inquiry policies.

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In connection with the recent surge in COVID-19 cases caused by the Delta variant, many businesses have begun to require that employees—and sometimes contractors, volunteers and patrons—provide proof of vaccination. This may come in the form of requests for voluntary disclosure, or in connection with employer vaccine policies, or pursuant to newly issued mandates from […]

Requiring Proof of Vaccination? What You Need to Know — Strategic HR Solutions

How Big Pharma Fueled the Opioid Crisis That Killed 500,000 and Counting via Democracy Now

As the U.S. continues to deal with the fallout from devastating the opioid epidemic that has killed over 500,000 people in the country since 1999, we speak with Academy Award-winning filmmaker Alex Gibney, whose latest documentary, “The Crime of the Century,” looks at the pharmaceutical industry’s methods in promoting and selling these powerful drugs. “I realized that the big problem here was that we had been seeing it as a crisis, like a natural disaster like a flood or a hurricane, rather than as a series of crimes,” says Gibney. “You had these terrible incentives, where the incentive is not to cure the patient. The incentive is to just make as much money as possible.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says U.S. drug overdose deaths skyrocketed to a record 93,000 last year — a nearly 30% increase. It is the largest one-year increase ever recorded, with overdoses rising in 48 of 50 states.

“Crime of the Century”: How Big Pharma Fueled the Opioid Crisis That Killed 500,000 and Counting – by Democracy Now — slaveofjesuschristdotme

The tone of voice to use when talking about forensic mistakes via Bredemarket

Remember my post that discussed the tone of voice that a company chooses to use when talking about the benefits of the company and its offerings? Or perhaps you saw the repurposed version of the post, a page section entitled “Don’t use that tone of voice with me!” The tone of voice that a firm […]

The tone of voice to use when talking about forensic mistakes — Bredemarket

A Brief Review of Reinsurance Trends in 2020 — Schiffer on Re-Insurance

Photo by Tuesday Temptation on Pexels.com Annually for several decades, with the first edition of each year’s reinsurance newsletter published by my various prior firms, we would present a brief review of reinsurance case law trends from the prior year. Because I am no longer with a firm, I now use this Blog to post […]

A Brief Review of Reinsurance Trends in 2020 — Schiffer on Re-Insurance

Vaccination as a Condition of Employment: Evaluating Legal Risks of Mandatory Vaccine Policies During the Pandemic — Strategic HR Solutions

With coronavirus vaccines receiving their emergency use authorizations from the FDA and being rapidly rolled out, employers will need to evaluate a mandatory vaccination policy that balances employee rights with novel business realities and pre-existing legal frameworks lacking clear guidance in the face of COVID-19.

Under existing federal law and regulations, employers may be able to institute mandatory vaccination policies to protect health and safety in the workplace. Although a mandatory vaccine policy is not completely free from legal risk, courts more recently have upheld vaccination requirements when an employer shows that the need for vaccine-acquired immunity is job-related, consistent with business necessity, and not more intrusive than necessary. Other constitutional challenges to the vaccine may occur, but such challenges could be influenced significantly by government and public sentiment likely to affect an outcome with the courts.

Current CDC guidance has identified frontline healthcare workers, workers in essential industries, and other high-risk individuals based on individual health factors as groups that will likely receive the earliest allocations of COVID-19 vaccines if demand outpaces supply, as expected. Employers with workers in the first two categories will likely have the strongest case for job-relatedness and business necessity when instituting a mandatory vaccination policy. But employers in other sectors may also be able to make a compelling case for mandatory vaccinations.

Proactive Consideration of Medical and Religious Accommodations

All employers implementing mandatory vaccine policies should consider (and train staff for) employees’ potential requests for medical or religious accommodations. For employers covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), mandatory medical “examinations” (including a requirement that employees receive vaccines) may require reasonable accommodations for employees with certain disabilities, unless the employer can show that the employee poses a “direct threat” (i.e., a significant risk of substantial harm that cannot be reduced or eliminated by reasonable accommodation) to their own health or to others in the workplace. Similarly, employers covered by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 may need to accommodate, absent direct threat, employees with religious objections to vaccination generally or to the specific production method of the then-available COVID-19 vaccine.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) determined in March 2020 that COVID-19’s “direct threat” to workers’ health justified employers’ medical examinations of employees, including more in-depth health-related questions, medical screening before allowing employees to report to work, and other similar conduct. This same finding of the direct threat posed by COVID-19 in the workplace may justify a mandatory vaccination policy for most employees as well.

When faced with employees requesting medical or religious accommodations (supported by appropriate documentation), employers will need to determine whether any potential accommodation either (a) would not sufficiently reduce or eliminate the direct threat posed by the pandemic or (b) would impose an undue hardship on the employer.

But these standards of accommodation, threat, and hardship will vary both under federal law and in the relevant factual scenarios of each employer. Under the ADA, for instance, undue hardship requires an employer to show that a reasonable accommodation for a medically-objecting employee would cause significant difficulty or expense after consideration of several factors. Under Title VII, undue hardship for religious accommodations need only meet a “de minimis test,” meaning that an employer would show that the accommodation imposed a more than minimal cost to demonstrate undue hardship in accommodating an employee objecting to vaccination on religious grounds. Because of these variations, federal law could require an employer to accommodate a disabled employee but not an employee demanding an accommodation for religious observance.

Further complicating these matters are the patchwork of state and local regulations of the workplace. For instance, in California, the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) provides greater protection for an employee making a request for a religious accommodation than under Title VII. Rather than the federal “de minimis” test for undue hardship of religious accommodations, California employers will need to evaluate the hardship presented by accommodations under a significant difficulty or expense factor-test similar to the federal ADA standard.

Practical Considerations

While employers await guidance on COVID-19 vaccination from applicable state and federal authorities, there are some practical issues employers should consider now regarding an approach to vaccination, including:

  • While mandating vaccination presents challenges related to medical and religious accommodations, the absence of a mandatory policy is not without cost. Without adopting a vaccination program, employers may face claims under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), or tort or workers’ compensation claims for failing to meet the obligation to provide a safe and healthy work environment.
  • Employers should encourage and incentivize workers to get vaccinated. Measures to promote employee vaccination could include: (1) outreach to company group health insurers to inquire whether the vaccine is covered by the group policy, (2) stipends or reimbursements for vaccination, (3) guidance on where to get vaccines (when vaccines become more widely available), (4) allowing employees to use PTO and other applicable leave to provide time off necessary to get vaccinated, and (5) demonstrations of personal commitment by company executives (e.g. sharing educational materials or testimonials concerning vaccination). Such incentives are particularly germane for those employers who decide that a mandatory vaccination policy may not fit with business necessity or company culture.
  • Create a thoughtful vaccination policy and enforce this policy as consistently and uniformly as possible. While employers should work within existing frameworks to consider religious and medical accommodations on a case-by-case basis, selective enforcement of a vaccination policy could lead to disparate treatment discrimination claims.
  • Stay mindful of state and local laws, regulations, and orders concerning vaccinations and reopening plans. Employers with locations across multiple jurisdictions will have to tailor policies to account for variations among state and local authorities.
  • Employers in a unionized setting will need to consider how a vaccination policy will fit within applicable collective bargaining agreements or trigger bargaining obligations.

In the vacuum of clear and controlling federal, state, and local guidance and with many questions unanswered as to the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for those who receive doses, employers considering vaccine mandates as part of their return-to-work plans or as an enhancement to workplace health and safety as the vaccines become increasingly available should consult with our team of HR professionals to evaluate appropriate policies and accommodations issues.

With coronavirus vaccines receiving their emergency use authorizations from the FDA and being rapidly rolled out, employers will need to evaluate a mandatory vaccination policy that balances employee rights with novel business realities and pre-existing legal frameworks lacking clear guidance in the face of COVID-19. Under existing federal law and regulations, employers may be able […]

Vaccination as a Condition of Employment: Evaluating Legal Risks of Mandatory Vaccine Policies During the Pandemic — Strategic HR Solutions

Who defines the concept of Morality?

by Jeffrey W. Hamilton

Text: Romans 2:12-16

I.         Where does the concept of right and wrong come from?

            A.        Why are some things “right” and other things “wrong?”            B.        Paul points out that the Gentiles were able by nature to know right from wrong – Romans 2:14-15

II.        Where morality doesn’t come from

            A.        Some people want to deny that there is an absolute right or wrong.                        1.         What is moral or immoral depends on the situation. In particular, if the end results appears to be good, then we are to conclude that the cause was good.

                        2.         Paul proved that this reasoning is false – Romans 5:20-6:2

                                    a.         Paul is saying it doesn’t make senses, it is a contradiction

                                    b.         Such reasoning is justly condemned – Romans 3:8

            B.        Some people argue that morality comes from within each individual                        1.         But that doesn’t work. There are things some people will do that I cannot accept                         2.         Supposedly this is acceptable and we are told that we must make allowances for the differing standards of people                         3.         Yet there are a lot of people out there who don’t care about their fellow man. By this “rule” I would be immoral for saying that Osama Bin Laden or Hitler’s actions were wrong.                                     a.         But wait a minute, I thought everyone determined for themselves what was right or wrong.                         4.         So we learn that it doesn’t happen in reality, people have standards at some level they want to impose on others.                         5.         God tells us that man doesn’t have the ability to determine right and wrong – Jeremiah 10:23

            C.        Morality doesn’t come from law                        1.         Returning to Paul’s point in Romans 2:14-15, the Gentiles were able to do right and wrong without having the law.

                        2.         Therefore law doesn’t determine what is right or wrong.

                        3.         Law defines right and wrong – Romans 7:7-13                                    a.         The law does not make things right or wrong, it simply states what exists.

                                    b.         We have in science a law of gravity.                                                (1)       Now gravity existed long before someone came up with the law of gravity.                                                 (2)       The law of gravity defines how gravity operates, but it did not create gravity.                                     c.         Murder is wrong. The law only explained that murder is a sin. The law did not make murder into a sin.

                                    d.         This is why God’s law is called truth – Psalm 119:142                                                (1)       Unlike man’s laws which are sometimes arbitrary and inaccurate, God’s law accurately define what exists.

III.       Where morality does come from

            A.        One fundamental point, among many, about God is that He is love – I John 4:8

                        1.         God is the embodiment of love

            B.        We have love because God first loved us – I John 4:17-21

                        1.         When we love, we are imitating God (vs. 17)

                        2.         Love did not start with us – I John 4:10

            C.        Jesus explained that the core to all law is love – Matthew 22:36-40

            D.        Laws come from God – II Timothy 3:16-17

                        1.         They never came from man – II Peter 1:19-21

                        2.         Laws are for our good – Deuteronomy 6:24

                                    a.         In a prophecy of the new law – Jeremiah 32:39

                                    b.         So that we might have life – Romans 6:21-22                        3.         In other words, God in His love for us gave us Laws to explain what is right and wrong – I John 5:2-3                         4.         We in turn show our love for God by keeping his commandments – John 14:15

            E.        When we follow God’s laws, we become like Him – I Peter 1:22

            F.        And God gives us laws to protect us from harm – Proverbs 6:23-24

                        1.         And that protection from harm is evidence of love

IV.      We need law because on our own we do not accurately distinguish good from evil            A.        It is by learning God’s law and putting it into practice that we are able to make the distinction – Hebrews 5:13-14

            B.        Though morality doesn’t come from law, law does teach us what is moral.

            C.        That was the advantage the Jews had over the Greeks – Romans 3:1-3                        1.         Even though the Jews were faithless in their keeping of the law, they did have the advantage of a better knowledge of what was right and wrong.

            D.        People often don’t recognize evil – Ecclesiastes 5:1; Psalm 82:4-5            E.        When God told Adam and Eve not to eat of one tree, He was telling them what already existed – Genesis 2:16-17

                        1.         Danger existed. There was something there that had bad consequences.                        2.         Adam and Eve were made aware by a commandment that the danger existed.

                        3.         Yet, they broke the commandment and thereby sinned – Romans 5:12            F.        God has always warned us of the dangers. There has always been laws – Romans 5:12-14

                        1.         Even before Moses came down from Mt. Sinai, people had laws.                        2.         How do I know? Because people were sinning before Moses lived – Genesis 4:7                         3.         Sin doesn’t exist without the presence of law because sin is defined to be the breaking of law – I John 3:4

V.        God has shown us what is good – Micah 6:6-8

            A.        Isn’t the prudent thing to listen? – Proverbs 4:1-27

Variables To Consider When Searching For The Right Personal Injury Lawyer via Lau

Heavy injuries - seek a specialized lawyer - personal injury 9449

Getting injured as a result of someone else’s recklessness can inconvenience you in so many ways. You may also be forced to spend a lot on treatment. The good thing is you can file a suit against any person who causes such type of harm to you. Commonly referred to as a personal injury case, you can easily get compensated for the medical expenses if you argue your case right. The right person to look for in such a scenario is a personal injury attorney. MG Law is a law firm with the best Atlanta injury attorneys to help you out in such a case. There is a myriad of things you have to know about a personal injury case before filing this type of suit. We will have a look at them in this article.  

Examples of Personal Injury Cases

Personal injury law includes a wide range of case types, from facilities liability to defective products. Popular personal injury suits are listed below:

Injuries

  • Brain injuries
  • Burn injuries
  • Whiplash
  • Spinal injuries/paralysis
  • Dog bite injuries
  • War wounds
  • Nursing home injuries
  • Medical negligence
  • Wrongful death
  • Dangerous products and drugs

Accident

  • Car crashes
  • Motorcycle accidents
  • Bus accidents
  • Truck accidents
  • Pedestrian accidents
  • Bicycle crashes
  • Slip and fall accidents

How to Know the Worth of Your Personal Injuries

Injury Case

The settlement you receive after a personal injury lawsuit can range from several hundred to million-dollar compensation. It all depends on the seriousness of your injuries, the skill level of your legal representation, and a variety of other circumstances. It is helpful to understand the types of damages available in a personal injury claim to get a better idea of ​​how much your claim may be worth.

Compensatory Damages

Compensatory damages are the most common types of damages in personal injury claims. This type compensates the claimant for losses suffered as a result of the injury. These include economic and non-economic damages.

Economic Damages

They include:

  • Medical bills: consisting of past and future bills for continuing care, rehabilitation and physical therapy, or end-of-life care and funeral expenses in wrongful death cases.
  • Lost wages: this includes the time you were unable to fend for yourself, job loss directly related to the accident/injury, reduced earning capacity, and partial or total disability resulting in loss of your livelihood.
  • Loss of property: including your car and other personal items. You can receive compensation to repair your property, replace it, or refund its fair market value.

Non-Economic Damages

They include, but are not limited to:

  • Pain and suffering: Understandably, coming up with a monetary value of suffering or pain can be hard. Pain and suffering mean the physical and psychological or discomfort you will go through during or after a crash.
  • Emotional distress: This includes fear and anxiety experienced during the accident or injury, but also afterward. Many people involved in an accident may have problems with post-traumatic stress disorder, panic attacks, and depression.
  • Lack of enjoyment: This includes the inability to participate in daily activities and hobbies due to the injury.
  • Loss of consortium: referring to the damaging effects of the injury on the spouse or children of the victim. This includes the loss of parenthood and companionship.

Do I need a personal injury attorney?

When injured, your priority should always be to get the comprehensive medical care you need. Once you have done this, it is recommended that you contact a trusted personal injury attorney to set up a consultation.

First deliberations (usually provided at no fee to you) allow you to have your suit examined by a qualified legal expert. They can let you know whether your claim is viable, help you calculate the number of damages you are owed, and develop a winning case strategy.

One of the things you should consider when looking for a personal injury attorney is experience. Look for someone with the required expertise for the job. An attorney who has represented several clients is the best. You should also consider the number of cases won. The other thing to look into carefully is their legal fees. Do not forget to consider their reputation. With the right attorney, you are guaranteed compensation.


Interesting Related Article: “Why Should You Hire A Personal Injury Attorney?

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Below are some actions you can take to gather a list of legal representatives in your location whom you might pay for. If you […]

Variables To Consider When Searching For The Right Personal Injury Lawyer — The Journaling of Lau 362

Globally Recognized Human Rights via Advocatetanmoy Law Library

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year

(A) 1993

(B) 1994

(C) 1995

(D) 1996

Answer: (A)

2. Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporates ‘Abolition of Untouchability’?

(A) Right to Religion

(B) Right to Equality

(C) Right to Freedom

(D) Right against Exploitation

Answer: (B)

3. Helsinki Declaration, 1964 is concerned with

(A) War prevention

(B) Human Experimentation

(C) Gender discrimination

(D) Child Abuse

Answer: (B)

4. Who introduced the concept of third generation Human Rights?

(A) Tullius Cesero

(B) Jermy Bentham

(C) John Finnis

(D) Karel Vasak

Answer: (D)

5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on

(A) December 1, 1948

(B) December 10, 1948

(C) December 11, 1948

(D) December 31, 1948

Answer: (B)

6. Which one of the Schedules of the Constitution given below deals with recognised languages?

(A) Schedule 8

(B) Schedule 7

(C) Schedule 12

(D) Schedule 9

Answer: (A)

7. Which one of the following is not a UN Agency?

(A) UNICEF

(B) UNESCO

(C) WTO

(D) ILO

Answer: (C)

8. Which Article of the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 defines the prisoners of War?

(A) Article 1

(B) Article 2

(C) Article 3

(D) Article 4

Answer: (D)

9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) Review Conference, 2010 held at

(A) Paris

(B) Kampala

(C) The Hague

(D) Rio de Janeiro

Answer: (B)

10. Who coined the term ‘Genocide’?

(A) Raphael Lemkin

(B) Eleanor Roosevelt

(C) P Thornberry

(D) Jafferson

Answer: (A)

11. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the Refugees?

(A) They are outside their country

(B) Fear of persecution

(C) Absence of National protection

(D) Poverty as reason of being outside the country

Answer: (D)

12. Right to Education is guaranteed under Article

(A) 14

(B) 19

(C) 21-A

(D) 21

Answer: (C)

13. Fundamental Duties are contained in

(A) Part IV Article 51-A

(B) Part IV Article 51-B

(C) Part III Article 35

(D) Part III Article 17

Answer: (A)

14. Who was the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross?

(A) Henry Dunant

(B) F. Lieber

(C) Rousseau

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

15. The UN Sub-Commission on ‘The Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ wasestablished in 1947 by

(A) General Assembly

(B) Security Council

(C) Commission on Human Rights

(D) International Court of Justice

Answer: (C)

16. Who among the following propounded the modern principles of Natural Justice?

(A) Locke

(B) J.S. Mill

(C) A.V. Dicey

(D) John Rawals

Answer: (C)

17. Guidelines for arrest of persons by the police were given by the Supreme

Court in which of the following cases?

(A) Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India

(B) Auto Sankar vs. State of Tamil Nadu

(C) Hussainara Khatoon vs. State of Bihar

(D) D. K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal

Answer: (D)

18. Which Amendment introduced the word ‘secular’ in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?

(A) 44th

(B) 42nd

(C) 93rd

(D) 16th

Answer: (B)

19. The legal positivism, a school of thought which does not accept human rights as merely moral or just was propounded by

(A) Plato

(B) Aristotle

(C) Hegel

(D) Austin

Answer: (D)

20. ‘Laissez faire’ philosophy is an anti thesis of

(A) Interventionist State

(B) Repressive State

(C) Soft State

(D) Welfare State

Answer: (D)

Question Nos. 21 – 30 contains two statements-one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Examine whetherthe statements are correct and related to eachother with the help of the codes given below:

21. Assertion (A): One of the fundamental principles of the Indian

Constitution is the Rule of Law.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India has guaranteed to every citizen the equality before law and has recognized the judiciary as the unfailing guardian of the rights of people.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

22. Assertion (A): Women in India today legally enjoy equal opportunities with men in all the fields.

Reason (R): The Constitution of India prohibits any kind of discrimination against women.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

23. Assertion (A): Bonded Labour is illegal in India.

Reason (R): Constitution of India prohibits bonded labour.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

24. Assertion (A): Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles constitute a body of rights/privileges guaranteed by the Indian Constitution to the people.

Reason (R): Fundamental Rights are justiciable whereas Directive principles are not.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (D)

25. Assertion (A): Fundamental Duties are not enforceable before a Court of Law.

Reason (R): Fundamental Duties can be enforced only through Constitutional means.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

26. Assertion (A): Power of the President to grant pardon and to suspend, remit or commute sentences under Article 72 of the Constitution is politically much abused from the Human Rights point of view.

Reason (R): The advice given by the Council of Ministers to the President under Article 74 of the Constitution is binding on the President.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

27. Assertion (A): Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be abridged even during emergency.

Reason (R): There is no need of emergency provisions in a democratic country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

28. Assertion (A): Capital punishment (Death Sentence) is impermissible Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Reason (R : According to Article 5 of universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), no one shall be subjected to Torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

29. Assertion (A): Directive Principles of State policy are not justiciable in a Court of Law.

Reason (R): The Directive Principles are Fundamental in the governance of the country.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (B)

30. Assertion (A): Marx was against the Religion.

Reason (R): Religion is opium of the masses.

Codes:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are correct and(R) is not the correct explanationof (A).

(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.

(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.

Answer: (A)

31. Arrange the following laws in chronological order in which they addressed Human Rights problems relating to practice of untouchability.

(i) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

(ii) The Protection of Civil Rights Act.

(iii) The Untouchability Offences Act.

(iv) The Bihar Harijan (Removal of Civil Disabilities) Act

Codes:

(A) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(B) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(C) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (A)

32. Arrange the following events in chronologically

(i) Nehru Report

(ii) Objective Resolution

(iii) Sapru Report

(iv) Morley Minto Reforms

Codes:

(A) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (A)

33. Arrange the following in order of the year of their establishment:

(i) Sachar Committee

(ii) Rangnath Mishra Commission

(iii) Gopal Singh Committee

(iv) Nanavati Commission on Godhra

Codes:

(A) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Answer: (A)

34. Arrange the following Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution of India in order of sequence:

(i) Right to form Association

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour

(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Answer: (D)

35. Arrange the following Human Rights Conventions in the chronological order of their adoption:

(i) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

(ii) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide.

(iii) Convention on the protection of the Rights of Migrant workers.

(iv) Convention against Torture.

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

Answer: (B)

36. Arrange the following events in the order in which they happened using the codes given below:

(i) Swadeshi Movement

(ii) Motilal Nehru Committee

(iii) Quit India Movement

(iv) Jalianwala Bagh

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)

(B) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)

(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

37. Who among the following launched educational reform movements among Muslims in India?

(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

(ii) Sir W.W. Hunters

(iii) Shah Waliullah

(iv) Zakir Hussain

Codes:

(A) (i) and (iv)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)

38. Arrange sequence of following concepts as they appear in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, using codes given below:

(i) Marriage

(ii) Right to Education

(iii) Arbitrary arrest

(iv) Equality

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)

(C) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)

(D) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)

Answer: (D)

39. Arrange sequence of following concepts as appearing in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966:

(i) Liberty of movement

(ii) Torture, in human treatment and punishment

(iii) Slavery

(iv) Family

Codes:

(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(B) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)

(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii)

Answer: (B)

40. Arrange the following regional human rights instruments in the order of their adoption:

(i) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights

(ii) American Convention on Human Rights

(iii) European Convention on Human Rights

(iv) Arab Charter on Human Rights

Codes:

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(B) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)

(C) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

(D) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)

Answer: (B)

From question numbers 41 – 46 matchList – I with List – II and select the correct answer with the help of codes given below:

41. List – I                                                                  List – II

a. Free Legal Aid                                                        i. Article – 51

b. Uniform Civil Code                                                ii. Article – 48A

c. Promotion of International Peace and Security      iii. Article – 44

d. Safeguarding forests and wild life                                     iv. Article – 39A

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i iv ii iii

(B) iii ii i iv

(C) iv iii i ii

(D) ii iii iv i

Answer: (C)

42. List – I                                                                                                                  List – II

a. Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention – 1989                                               i. UNESCO

b. Convention Against Discrimination in Education – 1960                                      ii. Council of Europe

c. GenevaConvention –1949                                                                                      iii. ILO

d. The Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities – 1994     iv. ICRC

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iv iii ii i

(C) iii ii i iv

(D) iii i iv ii

Answer: (D)

43. List – I                                                                  List – II

(Commissions)                                                            (Chairpersons)

a. National Human Rights Commission                      i. Wajahat Habibullah

b. National Commission of Minorities                        ii. K.G. Balakrishnan

c. National Commission for Scheduled Castes           iii. MamtaSharma

d. National Commission on Women                           iv. P.L. Punia

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iv iii

(B) ii i iv iii

(C) iii iv ii i

(D) i ii iii iv

Answer: (B)

44. List – I                              List – II

(Authors)                                 (Books)

a. Amartya Sen                       i. Theory of Justice

b. John Rawls                          ii. Development as Freedom

c. Ronald Dworkin                 iii. On Liberty

d. J.S. Mill                               iv. Taking Rights seriously

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) ii i iv iii

(B) i ii iii iv

(C) iii ii iv i

(D) i iii ii iv

Answer: (A)

45. List – I                                                      List – II

a. Justice                                                          i. Dehumanisation

b. Third generation of Human Rights             ii. Model of development

c. Globalization                                               iii. Collective Rights or Solidarity Rights

d. Growth approach                                        iv. Basic concept

Codes:

       a b c d

(A) iii iv i ii

(B) iv iii i ii

(C) iv iii ii i

(D) ii i iv iii

Answer: (B)

46. List – I                              List – II

(Organizations)                       (Areas of Work)

a. ICRC                                   i. Environment & Science

b. PUCL                                  ii. Conservation of Nature

c. IUCN                                  iii. Humanitarian Law

d. CES                                    iv. Civil Rights

Codes:

      a b c d

(A) i ii iii iv

(B) iii iv ii i

(C) iv ii iii i

(D) i iv iii ii

Answer: (B)

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow based on your understanding of the passage (Question Nos. 47 to 50):

The mythological history of India does not provide many clues to the direct rebellions of the oppressed masses against their oppression. But it is inconceivable that they did not take place at all over a long period of millennia that nibbled at their existence every moment with a ‘divine’ contrivance called caste. The extraordinary success of this contrivance of social stratification is as much attributable to its own design that effectively obviated coalescence of the oppressed castes and facilitated establishment and maintenance of ideological hegemony as to its purported divine origination. None could ordinarily raise a question as it meant incurring divine wrath and consequent ruination of the prospects of getting a better birth in their next life. Thus the caste system held society in a metaphysical engagement and at the same time in physical alienation with itself. Materially it provided for the security of every one through caste profession and psychologically an aspirational space for every caste including the non-caste untouchables to feel superior to some other. Since this superstructure was pivoted on the religio-ideological foundations, the manifestation of the resistance to the caste system always used the metaphysical tool kit that contrived its arguments into the religious form. Right from the early revolts like Buddhism and Jainism down to the Bhakti movement in the medieval age, one finds articulation of opposition to the caste system materialising in a religio – ideological idiom. This trend in fact extends well down to modern times that mark a new awakening of the oppressed castes and the birth of the contemporary Dalit movement. All anti-caste movement thus, from the beginning to the Present, invariably got engaged in religious confrontation with Brahmanism, either by its denouncement or adoption of some other religion. Some people contend that caste system was not a rigid system. They argue that even in the past inter-caste mingling of people took place. However, the fact remains that their argument is not corroborated by sufficient evidence at least till the advent of British Rule.

47. Choose the correct statement:

(A) Dalit justice movement was part of Indian mythologized history.

(B) Dalit repression did not prevail in the mythologized Indian history.

(C) Divinity attributed caste system of ancient India would have facilitated Dalit oppression in all probability.

(D) None of the above.

Answer: (C)

48. Divine attributes to caste:

(A) Provide sense of security

(B) Provide justification for physical alienation

(C) Provide psychological satisfaction about relative superiority

(D) Provide all the above

Answer: (D)

49. Identify the statement which is not correct?

(A) Medieval age also witnessed anti-caste movements.

(B) All caste movements whether pre-modern or modern attack on Brahmanism.

(C) Some new religions have their origin in anti-caste philosophy.

(D) None of the above

Answer: (D)

50. Which statement correctly depicts the stand of the author of the passage?

(A) Caste system of earlier times was not rigid.

(B) Inter caste movements were possible in earlier times.

(C) Rigidity of caste system remained the same till the advent of British Rule.

(D) The contention about flexible caste system is proved beyond doubt.

Answer: (C)

1- The protection of Human Rights Act in India was enacted in the year (A) 1993 (B) 1994 (C) 1995 (D) 1996 Answer: (A)

Solved Objective Question(MCQs)- Human Rights – 1st Set — Advocatetanmoy Law Library

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3. Distinctiveness in Trademark Law via Jarasek Law, LLC

 

There are four different categories of terms with respect to trademark protection.

Arrayed in ascending order which roughly reflects their eligibility to trademark status and the degree of protection accorded, these classes are (1) generic, (2) descriptive, (3) suggestive, and (4) arbitrary or fanciful.

The lines of demarcation, however, are not always bright.

Abercrombie & Fitch Co. v. Hunting World, Inc., 537 F.2d 4 (2d Cir. 1976).

  • Takeaways
    • Creating a distinctive mark is important for the following reasons:
      • Distinctiveness is a requirement of a trademark law;
      • If your mark is not distinctive, it will not register; and
      • Having a distinctive mark will likely keep the trademark registration process and enforcement costs down
    • Understanding the Distinctiveness Categories
      • Generic (not protected)
      • Descriptive
      • Suggestive
      • Arbitrary
      • Fanciful (most protected)
    • Descriptive marks v. Suggestive marks
      • Imagination Test
      • Competitors’ Needs Test

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There are four different categories of terms with respect to trademark protection. Arrayed in ascending order which roughly reflects their eligibility to trademark status and the degree of protection accorded, these classes are (1) generic, (2) descriptive, (3) suggestive, and (4) arbitrary or fanciful. The lines of demarcation, however, are not always bright. Abercrombie & […]

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